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Amzi Armstrong

In his A Syllabus of Lectures on the Visions of the Revelation (1815), Armstrong elaborates on the first four trumpets. The first four were for correction, as well as expressing displeasure and were therefore short in duration. First, Alaric and the Goths, descending "from the cold regions of the north" like a "storm of hail upon the empire" sparing not age nor infancy, knowing not that they had a commission from God to rebuke men for sin.

Second, Attila and the Huns, preceding the middle and the fifth century, invading the whole empire with violence, destroying as the "scourge of God, and the terror of men," because of the degeneracy of the times. Third, Genseric and the Vandals, representing the Arians, with their philosophizing notions. The last correction, before the close of the fifth century, the End of the Western Empire.

Then he says "Between this time, and the sounding of the next trumpet, I suppose it was that the true Church retired to the wilderness - The witnesses began to prophesy in sackcloth - The nominal church was rejected as apostate - And the beast arose out of the sea."

The "woe" trumpets were judgments without mercy upon the apostate church. The fifth trumpet was from 612 to 762 and the sixth trumpet from 1281 to 1762, the Saracens and the Turks respectively.

Thomas Beverly

In Of the Great Line of Prophetic Time...The 1260 Days of the Witnesses, Beverly assigns the Saracens to the fifth trumpet and the Turks to the sixth trumpet. The taking of Constantinople in 1453 is in connection with the hour, day, month and year period.

Thomas Brightman

The first four trumpets he expounds as the great heresies which befell the church, and the barbarian woes on the Western Roman Empire, the fourth being the Vandals. The fifth trumpet, darkening a third part of the sun (the church in Africa), he assigns to  religious persons in the West and to the Saracens in the East, and the sixth trumpet to the Turks - which oppressed by their tyranny not only the false church but also the true church - the latter, Brightman significantly adds, "began to come forth abroad at the year 1300."

Brightman's prophetic time periods are all determined on the year-day principle. The five months, or 150 days of the locust woe, he allots to the Saracen ravages of  Syria, Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Persia, beginning about A.D. 630, to their overthrow by the Emperor Leo Copronymus, about 780-a view later adopted by Daubuz.

Charles Buck

In his A Theological Dictionary (1802), used by practically all Protestants in the first half of the 19th century, Buck assigns the terminus of the 391 year period (Rev. 9:15) to be 1844. Presumably he starts it at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Aaron Burr Froom Vol. III, page 199.

In The Watchman's Answer to the Question, What of the Night (1757), Aaron Burr assigns the Saracens and the Turks to the fifth and sixth trumpets. He adds "Tis evident, this woe bro't by the Mohametan Imposture, is not yet passed away, great Part of the World still groaning under it; and it is probable, this Woe is to End with the total Destruction and Abolition of the Turkish Empire."

John Cotton

In The Powering out of the Seven Vials: An Exposition, of the 16th Chapter of the Revelation, Cotton introduces a new idea about the river Euphrates mentioned in Rev. 9:14. This river was not the literal river of Chaldea, Old Babylon but, the figurative river which flows through new Babylon. Rome. This river is loosed in chapter 9 and dries up in chapter 16. The drying up of the river in chapter 16 implies the drying up of the force, and strength of the new Babylon.

This same Euphrates of chapter 9, in chapter 16 waters the throne of the beast.

The sixth trumpet however, refers to the Turks.

John Cox Froom Vol. III, page 627.

In his Thoughts on the Coming Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ (1839), Cox taught that before the return of Christ Mohammedanism must be destroyed. He refers to Daniel 11:36-45 as indicating as much. He mentions that some believe the little horn of Daniel 8 refers to Mohammedanism as well. But the clearest reference is the sixth trumpet and sixth vial which call the Turks into political existence.

Daniel Cramer

Cramer's book on the Apocalypse assigned the "pope and his retinue" to the fifth trumpet and "Mohammed and his hordes" to the sixth trumpet.

A L Crandall

In his A Brief Explanation of the Book of Revelation in Chronological Order (1841), Crandall wrote that the third trumpet was the papal inquisitors, the fourth trumpet Mohammedanism, and the fifth trumpet the tortures of the Inquisition for "five months". The sixth trumpet he assigned to the Turks for 391 years extended from 1281 to 1672.

Drue Cressener

In his first book, The Judgments of God Upon the Roman Catholick Church, Cressener submits a series of cumulative theorems built around the seven trumpets, seals, and vials. Theorem I reads, "The Woe of the  seventh Trumpet destroys the power of the Beast." Theorem 5 says, "The whole time of the Beast is within the time of the Trumpets." and under "Consequences," that "the Kingdom of the Beast is an Object of the Trumpets." And Theorem 19, Consequence 1 adds, "The Saracens and Turks are the Woes of the fifth and sixth Trumpet."

Charles Daubuz

In his Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation of St. John (1730), Daubuz assigns the fifth and sixth trumpets to the Saracens and the Turks. The 150 years of the locust begin at 622, when Mohammed opened his mission. It ends in 762 with the Saracen calif's removal to Baghdad. He is not clear on sixth trumpet but the seventh trumpet is the resurrection of the just after which comes the millennium.

George Downham

In his Treatise Concerning Antichrist, Downham seeks to find the starting point of the 1260, 1290, 1335 and 391 day periods - all of which he recognized as based on the year-day principle. The 391 years (360-30-1) "do appertain unto the solution (loosing) of the Turks, which he places from about 1169 or about 1300.

Jonathan Edwards

In his History of the Work of Redemption (1739), Edwards identifies the fifth and sixth trumpets as the Saracens and the Turks. Of the Turks he writes, "They began their empire about the year of Christ 1296, and began to invade Europe about 1300, and took Constantinople, and so became Masters of all the European empire in 1453."

The prophesied period was thus implied but not stated.

E.B. Elliott Froom Vol III, page 719. In his famous Horae Apocalypticae (1844), Elliott see the seals followed by the trumpets in chronological order as opposed to parallel as earlier expositors believed. The first four trumpets were Alaric and the Goths, Genseric and his Vandals, Attila and the Huns and then Odoacer and his Heruli. These destroyed the Western Roman Empire whereas the fifth and sixth trumpets, the Saracens and the Turks, destroyed the Eastern Roman Empire. The time period of the Turk was 396 years (365 + 30 + 1) or from 1057 until 1453.

Benjamin Farnham

In his Dissertations on the Prophecies ( fl. 1778,9), Farnham gives the standard interpretation. The first four trumpets were the barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire. The fifth trumpet was the Saracenic locusts from 612 to 762 as they made their great conquests in Syria, Persia, India, Egypt, Africa and Spain.

Then come the Ottoman Turks, under the sixth trumpet, with their four Sultanies on the river Euphrates, sweeping ruthlessly over Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Babylon, Assyria and Mesopotamia out into Asia and Africa and then over Europe.

And the 391 years (Rev 9:15) perhaps reach from the taking of Kutahi, in 1281 to 1672 when they took Cameniec from the Poles. And the king of the north is probably Turkey. This was all preparatory to the final drying up of Turkey, under the sixth vial.

Robert Flemming, Jr.

In his Apocalyptical Key published in 1793, Flemming assigns the first four trumpets to the barbarians who were a judgment upon Western Rome. The star fallen from heaven in the fifth trumpet is the bishop of Rome; the dark pitchy smoke is the monks that swarmed about spreading error and idolatry. The locusts are the Saracens. The sixth trumpet brings the Turks from beyond the Euphrates, from which they date their rise.

Benjamin GaleFroom Vol. III, page 215

In his A Brief Essay......, (1788), Gale makes the following observation about the sixth trumpet: "The Euphratean horsemen are yet in being, and the Turkish tyranny and  imposture still continue, and not come to a final end; I think there can be no doubt but we are still under the period of the sixth trumpet."

Joseph GallowayFroom Vol. II, page 779.

In his Brief Commentaries..(1809 ed.), Galloway assigns the fifth trumpet to the Saracens but starts not only the 150 years at Mohammed but the 1260 also. He sees two 1260's, one for the Papal and Mohammedan  hierarchies each. The first beginning with the decree of Phocas and the other with Mohammed.

Thomas Goodwin

>In his Expositions on the book of Revelation, Goodwin followed Joseph Mede. The fallen star was Mohammed. The locusts were the Saracens. The period of the sixth trumpet was 396 years from 1453 until 1849.

John Haywood

In his The Christian Advocate (1819), Haywood states that the first six trumpets are the six periods of the Dark Ages after the fall of Rome, during which the Papacy, Mohammedanism, and paganism - the three unclean spirits - have "corrupted the fountains of religion."

The five months of the Mohammedan fifth trumpet are 150 years. The 391 years of the sixth trumpet possibly ends in 1777, with the raising and the siege of Vienna.

Issac T Hinton

In The Prophecies of Daniel and John (1843), Hinton states that the Mohammedan power appears in Daniel 8, Daniel 11 and Revelation 9. The fifth trumpet is the Saracens and the 150 years begins "when Mohammed first began to propage his imposture," in 612 to 762.

He believes the 2300 year period will end when the Turkish power is removed. It is this power which is trampling the sanctuary underfoot. The dissolution of  the Turkish Mohammedan power is anticipated by the figurative drying up of the Euphrates mentioned in Rev. 16.

He refers to the remarkable agreement among expositors on the identity of the sixth trumpet as being the Turks. The time period is 391 or 396 years and ends in 1453 or 1672.

Matthais Hoe

His commentary on the Apocalypse, written in German assigned the first four trumpets to "heretics", the fifth trumpet to the Roman pope and the sixth trumpet to the Turks. The seventh trumpet will be the overthrow of both Antichrists in the final judgment.

Edward Holyoke

In the Doctrine of Life or Man's Redemption, Holyoke declared that the Turks were raised up to be a scourge to the "Apostasie of the Greek Churches". The locusts of the fifth trumpet were the papal clergy and the monks.

William Hooke

In A Short Discourse of the Nature and Extent of the Gospel Day, Hooke states that the first four trumpets were judgments, the fifth trumpet was the papal "smoak" from the bottomless pit and the sixth trumpet was first sounded in 1300 when the Ottoman Turks arose.

Heinrich Horch

The trumpet judgments are judgments against the Roman Empire. The reign of the Saracen locusts to start in 622 and last for 150 years. The Turkish sixth trumpet to extend 396 years (365 +30 +1) from 1057 to 1453.

Ephraim Huit

In The Whole Prophecie of Daniel Explained, Huit computes the time period in Rev. 9:15 to be 395 years (365 + 30). The sixth trumpet he applies to the Turks and extends the time from 1300 A.D. to 1695. He connects the sixth trumpet with the sixth vial.

William JonesFroom Vol III., page 511.

In his Papers Read Before the Society for the Investigation of Prophecy (1828), Jones sees the barbarian judgments in the first four trumpets of Rev. 8. He specifically assigns the fourth to Odoacer whose conquest of Rome ended the Western Empire.

>The fifth trumpet he believed to be the Antichrist and the sixth trumpet the Mohammedan Turks.

George JunkinFroom Vol IV, 363.

In his The Little Stone and the Great Image (1844), Junkin sees the seals, trumpets and vials as consecutive symbols. The seals are confined to the early centuries with the seventh seal dividing into seven trumpets. The first four trumpets include Alaric and the Goths, Attila and the Huns, and Genseric and the Vandals.

The fifth Saracenic woe extends from 612 to 762. The sixth trumpet is the Ottoman Turks extending from 1281 (the capture of Cuthai) to 1672 their last conquest (Kameniec).

Aaron Kinne

In his Display of Scriptural Prophecies (1813), Kinne follows the theory of Joseph Mede (1627) and makes the seals and trumpets consecutive covering the Christian Era. The seals are confined to the first three centuries up to the convulsion of the Roman Empire.

The barbarians are the first four trumpets beginning about AD 400 with the invasion of the northern barbarians. They are followed by Genseric with his Vandals and Odoacer and the Heruli. The little horn of Daniel 8 is  Mohammedanism. The fifth trumpet extends from 612 to 762. And the sixth trumpet period of 391 years is from 1281 to 1762.

Increase Mather

In The Mystery of Israel's Salvation, Explained, Mather assigns the Saracens and Turks to the fifth and sixth trumpets. The Turks were involved in Daniel 11:44,45  with the Jews. The king of the north is the Turkish Ottoman family.

He say: "The Turkish power is signified by the Euphrates, Rev. 9:13,14. I heard a voice saying, loose the four Angels which are bound in the great River Euphrates. The meaning of the place may be, That the Turks which lay on both sides of the River Euphrates, and were divided into four Sultanies or Kingdoms should be let loose, partly by composing their civil dissentions, and partly by being united under one Ottomanical head, to make a dreadful irruption upon the Roman Empire.

Joseph Mede

According to Mede in The Key of the Revelation, the first four trumpets were successively tied to Alaric, Genseric, Odoacer, and Totila. The fifth trumpet was fulfilled in the Saracens; and the sixth, by the Turks from the Euphrates. This he adds is in harmony with the best expositors.

The 150 days of the "locusts" are given as the beclouding years of the Saracenic ravages on the Italian coast, from A.D. 830 to 980. The Euphratean horseman's hour, day, month and year, Mede takes as 396 years (365+30+1) from the taking of Baghdad, about A.D. 1057 to the taking of Constantinople
in 1453. The seventh is yet to come.

John Napier

In his A Plaine Discovery of the Whole of Revelation of Saint John, propositions 3 and 4 deal with the 5th and 6th trumpets which Napier applies to the Mohammedans and the Ottoman Turks. Mohammed is the fallen star. Napier suggests the 150 years involved may possibly be from Zadok, in 1051, to "Changius Chan", in 1201, and touches hazinly upon the year 1296.

Sir Isaac Newton

In Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton agrees with Joseph Mede on the first six trumpets, but takes him to task for not making the vials "synchronal to" the trumpets. The first four trumpets were the barbarians falling upon the Eastern Roman Empire in the first and upon Western Rome in the second, third and fourth.

The fifth trumpet, or first woe, is the Saracenic locusts, whose 150 years he doubles - five months and five months - from 637 to 936 inclusive. The sixth trumpet, or second woe, sounds to the wars of the king of the north, or the Turks, seated upon the Euphrates, began to erect their empire in 1063, and in 1453 they took
Constantinople and extinguished the Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Rome. As for the time period he remarks, "The interval is called an hour and a day, and a month, and a year, or 391 prophetic days, which are years."

Thomas Newton Froom Vol. II, page 686.

In his most popular Dissertations on the Prophecies (1796), Newton assigns the time period of the sixth trumpet to be 391 years and 15 days. He then elaborates on its historical fulfillment: " Now it is wonderfully remarkable, that the first conquest mentioned in history, of the Othmans over the Christians, was in the year of the Hegira 680 and the year of Christ 1281. For Ortogrul ' in that year (according to the accurate historian Saadi,)

crowned his victories with the conquests of the famous city of Kutahi upon the Greeks.' Compute 391years from that time, and they will terminate in the year 1672: and in that year, as it was hinted before, Mohammed the Fourth took Cameniec from the Poles, 'and forty-eight towns and villages in the territory of Camemiec were delivered up' to the sultan upon the treaty of peace. Whereupon Prince Cantemir hath made this remarkable reflection, 'This was the last victory by which any advantage accrued to the Othman state, or any city or province was annexed to the ancient bounds of the empire.' "

" Here then the prophecy and the event agree exactly in the period of 391 years; and if more accurate and authentic histories of the Othmans were brought to light, and we knew the very day wherein Kutahi was taken, as certainly as we know that wherein Cameniec was taken, the like exactness might also be found in the 15 days."

Samuel Osgood Froom Vol. III, page 221.

In his Remarks on the Book of Daniel and on the Revelations (1794), Osgood assigns the period 622 to 772 for the fifth trumpet. The sixth trumpet he starts on July 27, 1299 , the time of Othman and extends it 391 years and 15 days

David Pareus

In A Commentary Upon the Divine Revelation (1644), Pareus states that the Trumpets cover the same time period as the seals, the fifth and sixth referring to the conquests of Mohammedanism, and the seventh to the consummation. The five months of the locust's ravages in the fifth trumpet are based upon the common length of the ravages of the locusts

Thomas Parker

In The Visions and Prophecies of Daniel Expounded, Thomas Parker applies the Turks to the sixth trumpet and uses 391 years for Rev. 9:15 extending the time period from 1258 to 1649.

Robert Scott

In his Antidote for Deism (1816), Scott assigns the fifth and sixth trumpets to the Saracens and the Turks. The former period he establishes as 606 to 756 and the period of the latter as from July, 27 1299 when they entered Nicomedia to 1690 when Vienna was raised.

Scott contends that before the Second Coming of Christ the "great river Euphrates" (Mohammedanism - Persia and Turkey) must be dried up, the Jews from the West and scattered Israel from the East will return to Canaan, divide the land, build a temple, and worship the God of Israel (not Christ).

William Sherwin

In A Scheme of the Whole Book of the Revelation of Jesus Christ, Sherwin gives the standard interpretations of the barbarians, Saracens and Turks for the trumpets. The Saracens rise in 600-750 and the Turks 396 years (365+30+1) from 1300 to 1696. The latter part of Daniel 11 parallels the sixth trumpet.

William Whiston

In his An Essay on the Revelation of St. John (1706), Whiston places the Ottoman Turkish Woe period of 396 years (365.25 + 30 + 1 + 15 days) starting at 1301 to 1697. The ending point was marked by Prince Eugene's great victory over the Turks, followed by the Peace of Carlowitz in 1699 when the Ottoman's ceased to terrorize Christendom.

Hans WoodFroom Vol. II, page 721.

In his The Revelation of St. John, Wood extends the 150 years of the Saracenic fifth trumpet from the invasion of Syria by the Arabs in 630 to the defeat in  Cilicia, in 780 and the Turkish period he begins in 1030