Of the power of the eleventh horn of Daniel’s fourth Beast, to change times and laws

IN the reign of the Greek Emperor Justinian, and again in the reign of Phocas, the Bishop of Rome obtained some dominion over the Greek Churches, but of no long continuance. His standing dominion was onlyover the nations of the Western Empire, represented by Daniel's fourth beast. And this jurisdiction was set up by the following Edict of theEmperors Gratian and Valentinian.

Volumus ut quicunque judicio Damasi, quod ille cum Concilio quinque vel septem habuerit Episcoporum, vel eorum qui Catholici sunt judicio vel Conciliocondemnatus fuerit, si juste voluerit Ecclesiam retentare, ut qui adsacerdotale judicium per contumeliam non ivisset: ut ab illustribus virisPraefectis Praetorio Galliae atque Italiae, authoritate adhibita, adEpiscopale judicium remittatur, sive a Consularibus vel Vicariis, ut adUrbem Romam sub prosecutione perveniat. Aut si in longinquioribuspartibus alicujus ferocitas talis emerserit, omnis ejus causae edictio adMetropolitae in eadem Provincia Episcopi deduceretur examen. Vel siipse Metropolitanus est, Romam necessario, vel ad eos quos RomanusEpiscopus judices dederit, sine delatione contendat. Quod si velMetropolitani Episcopi vel cujuscunque sacerdotis iniquitas est suspecta,aut gratia; ad Romanum Episcopum, vel ad Concilium quindecimfinitimorum Episcoporum accersitum liceat provocare; modo ne postexamen habitum, quod definitum fuerit, integretur.

This Edict wanting the name of both Valens and Theodosius in the Title, was made in the timebetween their reigns, that is, in the end of the year 378, or the beginning of 379. It was directed to the Praefecti Praetorio Italiae & Galliae, and therefore was general. For the Praefectus Praetorio Italiae Praefectus Praetorio Galliae governed Gallia, Spain, and Britain.The granting of this jurisdiction to the Pope gave several Bishops occasionto write to him for his resolutions upon doubtful cases, whereupon heanswered by decretal Epistles; and henceforward he gave laws to theWestern Churches by such Epistles. Himerius Bishop of Tarraco, the headcity of a province in Spain, writing to Pope Damasus for his direction about certain Ecclesiastical matters, and the Letter not arriving at Rome tillafter the death of Damasus, A.C. 384; his successor Siricius answered thesame with a legislative authority, telling him of one thing: Cum hoc fieri missa ad Provincias a venerandae meroriae praedecessore meo Liberiogeneralia decreta, prohibeant. Of another: Noverint se ab omni ecclesiastico honore, quo indigne usi sunt, Apostolicae Sedis auctoritate,dejectos. Of another: Scituri posthac omnium Provinciarum summi Qntistites, quod si ultro ad sacros ordines quenquam de talibus esseassumendum, & de suo & de aliorum statu, quos contra Canones &interdicta nostra provexerint, congruam ab Apostolica Sede promendamesse sententiam.

And the Epistle he concludes thus: Explicuimus, utarbitror, frater charissime, universa quae digesta sunt in querelam; & adsingulas causas, de quibus ad Romanam Ecclesiam, utpote ad caput tuicorporis, retulisti; sufficientia, quantum opinor, responsa reddidimus.Nunc fraternitatis tuae animum ad servandos canones, & tenendadecretaliae constituta, magis ac magis incitamus: ad haec quae ad tuaconsulta rescripsimus in omnium Coepiscoporum perferri faciasnotionem; & non solum eorum, qui in tua sunt dioecesi constituti, sedetiam ad universos Carthaginenses ac Boeticos, Lusitanos atque Gallicos,vel eos qui vicinis tibi collimitant hinc inde Provinciis, haec quae a nobissunt salubri ordinatione disposita, sub literarum tuarum prosecutionemittantur. Et quanquam statuta sedis Apostolicae vel Canonumvenerabilia definita, nulli Sacerdotum Domini ignorare sit liberum: utiliustamen, atque pro antiquitate sacerdotii tui, dilectioni tuae esse admodumpoterit gloriosum, si ea quae ad te speciali nomine generaliter scriptasunt, per unanimitatis tuae sollicitudinem in universorum fratrumnostrorum notitiam perferantur; quatenus & quae a nobis non inconsultesed provide sub nimia cautela & deliberatione sunt salubriter constituta,intemerata permaneant, & omnibus in posterum excusationibus aditus, quijam nulli apud nos patere poterit, obstruatur. Dat. 3 Id. Febr. Arcadio &Bautone viris clarissimisConsulibus, A.C. 385.

Pope Liberius in the reign of Jovian or Valentinian I. sent general Decrees to the Provinces, orderingthat the Arians should not be rebaptized: and this he did in favor of theCouncil of Alexandria, that nothing more should be required of them thanto renounce their opinions. Pope Damasus is said to have decreed in aRoman Council, that Tithes and Tenths should be paid upon pain ofAnathema; and that Glory be to the Father, &c. should be said or sung atthe end of the Psalms.But the first decretal Epistle now extant is this of Siricius to Himerius; bywhich the Pope made Himerius his Vicar over all Spain for promulging hisDecrees, and seeing them observed. The Bishop of Sevill was also thePope�s Vicar sometimes; for Simplicius wrote thus to Zeno Bishop of that place:

Talibus idcirco gloriantes indiciis, congruum duximus vicaria Sedis nostrae te auctoritate fulciri: cujus vigore munitus, Apostolicaeinstitutionis Decreta, vel sanctorum terminos Patrum, nullatenustranscendi permittas.

And Pope Hormisda made the Bishop of Sevill his Vicar over Boetica and Lusitania, and the Bishop of Tarraco his Vicar overall the rest of Spain, as appears by his Epistles to them.Pope Innocent the first, in his decretal Epistle to Victricius Bishop ofRouen in France, A.C. 404, in pursuance of the Edict of Gratian, made this Decree:

Si quae autem causae vel contentiones inter Clericos tam superioris ordinis quam etiam inferioris fuerint exortae; ut secundumSynodum Nicenam congregatis ejusdem Provinciae Episcopis jurgiumterminetur: nec alicui liceat, Romanae Ecclesiae, cujus in omnibus causisdebet reverentia custodiri, relictis his sacerdotibus, qui in eademProvincia Dei Ecclesiam nutu Divino gubernant, ad alias convolareProvincias. Quod siquis forte praesumpserit; & ab officio Clericatussummotus, & injuriarum reus judicetur. Si autem majores causae inmedium fuerint devolutae, ad Sedem Apostolicam sicut Synodus statuit, &beata consuetudo exigit, post judicium Episcopale referantur.

By these Letters it seems to me that Gallia was now subject to the Pope, and hadbeen so for some time, and that the Bishop of Rouen was then his vicar orone of them: for the Pope directs him to refer the greater causes to the Seeof Rome, according to custom. But the Bishop of Arles soon after becamethe Pope�s Vicar over all Gallia: for Pope Zosimus, A.C. 417, ordainingthat none should have access to him without the credentials of his Vicars,conferred upon Patroclus the Bishop of Arles this authority over all Gallia,by the following Decree.

Zosimus universis Episcopis per Gallias & septem Provincias constitutis. Placuit Apostolicae Sedi, ut siquis ex qualibet Galliarum parte subquolibet ecclesiastico gradu ad nos Romae venire contendit, vel alioterrarum ire disponit, non aliter proficiscatur nisi Metropolitani EpiscopiFormatas acceperit, quibus sacerdotium suum vel locum ecclesiasticumquem habet, scriptorum ejus adstipulatione perdoceat: quod ex gratiastatuimus quia plures episcopi sive presbyteri sive ecclesiasticisimulantes, quia nullum documentum Formatarum extat per quod valeant confutari, in nomen venerationis irrepunt, & indebitam reverentiampromerentur. Quisquis igitur, fratres charissimi, praetermissa supradictiFormata, sive episcopus, sive presbyter, sive diaconus, aut deincepsinferiori gradu sit, ad nos venerit: sciat se omnino suscipi non posse.Quam auctoritatem ubique nos misisse manifestum est, ut cunctisregionibus innotescat id quod statuimus omnimodis esse servandum.Siquis autem haec salubriter constituta temerare tentaverit sponte sua, sea nostra noverit communione discretum. Hoc autem privilegiumFormatarum sancto Patroclo fratri & coepiscopo nostro, meritorum ejusspeciali contemplatione, concessimus.

And that the Bishop of Arles was sometimes the Pope�s Vicar over all France, is affirmed also by all theBishops of the Diocess of Arles in their Letter to Pope Leo I.

Cui id etiam honoris dignitatisque collatum est, say they, ut non tantum has Provinciaspotestate propria gubernaret; verum etiam omnes Gallias sibi ApostolicaeSedis vice mandatas, sub omni ecclesiastica regula contineret. And PopePelagius I. A.C. 556, in his Epistle to Sapaudus Bishop of Arles: Majorumnostrorum, operante Dei misericordia, cupientes inhaerere vestigiis &eorum actus divino examine in omnibus imitari: Charitati tuae peruniversam Galliam, sancte Sedis Apostolicae, cui divina gratiapraesidemus, vices injungimus.

By the influence of the same imperial Edict, not only Spain and Gallia, but also Illyricum became subject to the Pope. Damasus made Ascholius, orAcholius, Bishop of Thessalonica the Metropolis of Oriental Illyricum, hisVicar for hearing of causes; and in the year 382, Acholius being summonedby Pope Damasus, came to a Council at Rome. Pope Siricius the successorof Damasus, decreed that no Bishop should be ordained in Illyricumwithout the consent of Anysius the successor of Acholius. And thefollowing Popes gave Rufus the successor of Anysius, a power of callingProvincial Councils: for in the Collections of Holstenius there is an accountof a Council of Rome convened under Pope Boniface II. in which wereproduced Letters of Damasus, Syricius, Innocent I. Boniface I. and Coelestine Bishops of Rome, to Ascholius, Anysius and Rufus, Bishops ofThessalonica: in which Letters they commend to them the hearing ofcauses in Illyricum, granted by the Lord and the holy Canons to theApostolic See throughout that Province. And Pope Siricius saith in hisEpistle to Anysius:

etiam dudum, frater charissime, per Candidianum Episcopum, qui nos praecessit ad Dominum, hujusmodi literasdederamus, ut nulla licentia esset, sine consensu tuo in Illyrico Episcopos ordinare praesumere, quae utrum ad te pervenerint scire non potui. Multaenim gesta sunt per contentionem ab Episcopis in ordinationibusfaciendis, quod tua melius caritas novit. And a little after: Ad omnem enimhujusmodi audaciam comprimendam vigilare debet instantia tua, Spirituin te Sancto fervente: ut vel ipse, si potes, vel quos judicaveris Episcoposidoneos, cum literis dirigas, dato consensu qui possit, in ejus locum quidefunctus vel depositus fuerit, Catholicum Episcopum vita & moribus,probatum, secundum Nicaenae Synodi statuta vel Ecclesiae Romanae,Clericum de Clero meritum ordinare. And Pope Innocent I. saith in hisEpistle to Anysius: Cui [Anysio] etiam anteriores tanti ac tales viri praedecessores mei Episcopi, id est, sanctae memoriae Damasus, Siricius,atque supra memoratus vir ita detulerunt; ut omnia quae in omnibus illispartibus gererentur, Sanctitati tuae, quae plena justitiae est, traderentcognoscenda.

And in his Epistle to Rufus the successor of Anysius:

ta longis intervallis disterminatis a me ecclesiis discat consulendum; utprudentiae gravitatique tuae committendam curam causasque, siquaeexoriantur, per Achaiae, Thessaliae, Epiri veteris, Epiri novae, & Cretae,Daciae mediterraneae, Daciae ripensis, Moesiae, Dardaniae, & Proevaliecclesias, Christo Domino annuente, censeam. Vere enim ejussacratissimis monitis lectissimae sinceritatis tuae providentiae & virtutihanc injungimus sollicitudinem: non promitus haec statuentes, sedPraecessores nostros Apostolicos imitati, qui beatissimis Acholio &Anysio injungi pro meritis ista voluerunt.

And Boniface I. in his decretal Epistle to Rufus and the rest of the Bishops in Illyricum:

Nullus, ut frequenter dixi, alicujus ordinationem citra ejus [EpiscopiThessalonicensis] conscientiam celebrare praesumat: cui, ut supra dictumest, vice nostra cuncta committimus

And Pope Coelestine, in his decretal Epistle to the Bishops throughout Illyricum, saith:

vicem nostram per vestram Provinciam noveritis [Rufo] esse commissam, ita ut ad eum,fratres carissimi, quicquid de causis agitur, referatur. Sine ejus consilionullus ordinetur. Nullus usurpet, eodem inconscio, commissam illiProvinciam; colligere nisi cum ejus voluntate Episcopus non praesumat.

And in the cause of Perigenes, in the title of his Epistle, he thus enumerates the Provinces under this Bishop:

Rufo & coeteris Episcopis per Macedoniam, Achaiam, Thessaliam, Epirum veterem, Epirum novam,Praevalin, & Daciam constitutis.

And Pope Xistus (Sixtus?) in a decretal Epistle to the same Bishops:

I llyricanae omnes Ecclesiae, ut adecessoribus nostris recepimus, & nos quoque fecimus, ad curam nuncpertinent Thessalonicensis Antistis, ut sua sollicitudine, siquae inter fratres nascantur, ut assolent, actiones distinguat atque definiat; & adeum, quicquid a singulis sacerdotibus agitur, referatur. Sit Concilium,quotiens causae fuerint, quotiens ille pro necessitatum emergentiumratione decreverit.

And Pope Leo I. in his decreatal Epistle to Anastasius Bishop of Thessalonica:

Singulis autem Metropolitanis sicut potestas istacommittitur, ut in suis Provinciis jus habeant ordinandi; ita eosMetropolitanos a te volumus ordinari; maturo tamen & decocto judicio. Occidental Illyricum comprehended Pannonia prima and secunda, Savia,Salmatia, Noricum mediterraneum, and Noricum ripense;

and its Metropolis was Sirmium, till Attila destroyed this city. AfterwardsLaureacum became the Metropolis of Noricum and both Pannonias, andSalona the Metropolis of Dalmatia. Now the Bishops of Laureacum andSalona received the pallium from the Pope: and Zosimus, in his decretalEpistle to Hesychius Bishop of Salona, directed him to denounce theApostolic decrees as well to the Bishops of his own, as to those ofneighboring Provinces. The subjection of these Provinces to the See of Rome seems to have begun in Anemius, who was ordained Bishop ofSirmium by Ambrose Bishop of Millain, and who in the Council of Aquileiaunder Pope Damasus, A.C. 381, declared his sentence in these words:

Capus Illirici non nisi civitas Sirmiensis: Ego igitur illius civitatis Episcopus sum. Eum qui non confitetur filium Dei aeternum, & coeternumpatri, qui est sempiternus, anathema dico.

The next year Anemius and Abrose, with Valerian Bishop of Aquileia, Acholius Bishop ofThessalonica, and many others, went to the Council of Rome, which metfor over-ruling the Greek Church by majority of votes, and exalting theauthority of the Apostolic See, as was attempted before in the Council ofSardica.Aquileia was the second city of the Western Empire, and by some calledthe second Rome. It was the Metropolis of Istria, Forum Julium, andVenetia; and its subjection to the See of Rome is manifest by the decretal Epistle of Leo I. directed to Nicetas Bishop of this city; for the Pope beginshis Epistle thus:

Regressus ad nos filius meus Adeodatus Diaconus Sedis nostrae, dilectionem tuam poposcisse memorat, ut de his a nobisauthoritatem Apostolicae Sedis acciperes, quae quidem magnamdifficultatem dijudicationis videntur afferre.

Then he sets down an answer to the question proposed by Nicetas, and concludes thus:

Hanc autem Epistolam nostram, quam ad consultationem tuae fraternitatis emisimus,ad omnes fratres & comprovinciales tuos Episcopos facies pervenire, ut in omnium observantia, data prosit authoritas. Data 12 Kal. Apr. MajoranoAug. Cos. A.C. 458.

Gregory the great A.C. 591, cited Severus Bishop of Aquileia to appear before him in judgment in a Council at Rome.The Bishops of Aquileia and Millain created one another, and thereforewere of equal authority, and alike subject to the See of Rome. PopePelagius about the year 557, testified this in the following words:

Mos antiquus fuit, saith he, ut quia pro longinquitate vel difficultate itineris, ab Apostolico illis onerosum fuerit ordinari, ipsi se invicem Mediolanensis &Aquileiensis ordinare Episcopos debuissent.

These words imply that the ordination of these two Bishops belonged to the See of Rome. WhenLaurentius Bishop of Millain had excommunicated Magnus, one of hisPresbyters, and was dead, Gregory the great absolved Magnus, and sentthe Pallium to the new elected Bishop Constantius; whom the next year hereprehended of partiality in judging Fortunatus, and commanded him tosend Fortunatus to Rome to be judged there: four years after he appointedthe Bishops of Millain and Ravenna to hear the cause of one Maximus; andtwo years after, viz. A.C. 601, when Constantius was dead, and the peopleof Millain had elected Deusdedit his successor, and the Lombards hadelected another, Gregory wrote to the Notary, Clergy, and People ofMillain,that by the authority of his Letters Deusdedit should be ordained, and thathe whom the Lombards had ordained was an unworthy successor ofAmbrose: whence I gather, that the Church of Millain had continued in thisstate of subordination to the See of Rome ever since the days of Ambrose;for Ambrose himself acknowledged the authority of that See.

Ecclesia Romana, saith he, hanc consuetudinem non habet, cujus typum in omnibus sequimur, & formam. And in his Commentary upon 1 Timothy 3: Cumtotus mundus Dei sit, tamen domus ejus Ecclesia dicitur, cujus hodierector est Damasus. In his Oration on the death of his brother Satyrus, herelates how his brother coming to a certain city of Sardinia, advocavit Episcopum loci, percontatusque est ex eo utrum cum Episcopis Catholicishoc est cum Romana Ecclesia conveniret?

And in conjunction with the Synod of Aquileia A.C. 381, in a synodical Epistle to the Emperor Gratian,he saith:

Totius orbis Romani caput Romanam Ecclesiam, atque illam sacrosanctam Apostolorum fidem, ne turbari sineret, obsecranda fuitclementia vestra; inde enim in omnes venerandae communionis juradimanant.

The Churches therefore of Aquileia and Millain were subject to the See of Rome from the days of the Emperor Gratian. Auxentius the predecessor of Ambrose was not subject to the see of Rome, andconsequently the subjection of the Church in Millain began in Ambrose.This Diocese of Millain contained Liguria with Insubria, the Alpes Cottiaeand Rhaetia; and was divided from the Diocese of Aquileia by the riverAddua. In the year 844, the Bishop of Millain broke off from the See ofRome, and continued in this separation about 200 years, as is thus relatedby Sigonius:

Eodem anno Angilbertus Mediolanensis Archiepiscopus ab Ecclesia Romana parum comperta de causa descivit, tantumque exemploin posterum valuit, ut non nisi post ducentos annos EcclesiaMediolanensis ad Romanae obedientiam auctoritatemque redierit.

iThe Bishop of Ravenna, the Metropolis of Flaminia and Aemilia, was also subject to the Pope: for Zosimus, A.C. 417, excommunicated some of thePresbyters of that Church, and wrote a comminatory Epistle about them tothe Clergy of that Church as a branch of the Roman Church:

In sua, saith he, hoc est, in Ecclesia nostra Romana.

When those of Ravenna, having elected a new Bishop, gave notice thereof to Pope Sixtus, the Pope set himaside, and ordained Peter Chrysologus in his room. Chrysologus in hisEpistle to Eutyches, extant in the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, wrotethus:

Nos pro studio pacis & fidei, extra consensum Romanae civitatis Episcopi, causas fidei audire non possimus.

iPope Leo I. being consulted by Leo Bishop of Ravenna about some questions, answered him by adecretal Epistle A.C. 451. And Pope Gregory the great, reprehending JohnBishop of Ravenna about the use of the Pallium, tells him of a Precept ofone of his Predecessors, Pope John, commanding that all the Privilegesformerly granted to the Bishop and Church of Ravenna should be kept: tothis John returned a submissive answer; and after his death Pope Gregoryordered a visitation of the Church of Ravenna, confirmed the privilegesheretofore granted them, and sent his Pallium, as of ancient custom, totheir new Bishop Marinian. Yet this Church revolted sometimes from theChurch of Rome, but returned again to its obedience.

The rest of Italy, with the Islands adjacent, containing the suburbicarian regions, or ten Provinces under the temporal Vicar of Rome, viz.Campania, Tuscia and Umbria, Picenum suburbicarium, Sicily, Apulia andCalabria, Brutii and Lucania, Samnium, Sardinia, Corsica, and Valeria,constituted the proper Province of the Bishop of Rome. For the Council ofNice in their fifth Canon ordained that Councils should be held every springand autumn in every Province; and according to this Canon, the Bishops ofthe Province met at Rome every half year. In this sense Pope Leo I. applied this Canon to Rome, in a decretal Epistle to the Bishops of Sicily, writtenAlippio & Ardabure Coss. A.C. 447.

Quia saluberrime, saith he, a sanctis patribus constitutum est, binos in annis singulis Episcoporum debere esseconventus, terni semper ex vobis ad diem tertium Kalendarum OctobriumRomam aeterno concilio sociandi occurrant. Et indissimulanter a vobishaec consuetudo servetur, quoniam adjuvante Dei gratia facilius poteritprovideri, ut in Ecclesiis Christi nulla scandala, nulli nascantur errores;cum coram Apostolo Petro semper in communione tractatum fuerit, utomnia Canonum Decreta apud omnes Domini sacerdotes inviolatapermaneant.

Pope Zosimus A.C The Province of Rome therefore comprehended Cicily, with so much of Italy and the neighboring Islands as sent Bishops to the annualCouncils of Rome; Aquileia, Millain, Arles, &c. those Provinces havingCouncils of their own. The Bishops in every Province of the RomanEmpire were convened in Council by the Metropolitan or Bishop of thehead city of the Province, and this Bishop presided in that Council: but theBishop of Rome did not only preside in his own Council of the Bishops ofsuburbicarian regions, but also gave Orders to the Metropolitans of all theother Provinces in the Western Empire, as their universal governor; as maybe further perceived by the following instances.

417, cited Proculus Bishop of Marseilles to appear before a Council at Rome for illegitimate Ordinations; and condemned him,as he mentions in several of his Epistles. Pope Boniface I. A.C. 419, upon acomplaint of the Clergy of Valentia, against Maximus a Bishop, summonedthe Bishops of all Gallia and the seven Provinces to convene in a Councilagainst him; and saith in his Epistle, that his Predecessors had done thelike. Pope Leo I. called a general Council of all the Provinces of Spain tomeet in Gallaecia against the Manichees and Priscillianists, as he says in hisdecretal Epistle to Turribius a Spanish Bishop. And in one of his decretalEpistles to Nicetas Bishop of Aquileia, he commands him to call a Councilof the Bishops of that Province against the Pelagians, which might ratify allthe Synodal Decrees which had been already ratified by the See of Romeagainst this heresy. And in his decretal Epistle to Anastasius Bishop ofThessalonica, he ordained that Bishop should hold two Provincial Councilsevery year, and refer the harder causes to the See of Rome: and if upon anyextraordinary occasion it should be necessary to call a Council, he shouldnot be troublesome to the Bishops under him, but content himself with twoBishops out of every Province, and not detain them above fifteen days. Inthe same Epistle he describes the form of Church-Government then set up, to consist in a subordination of all the Churches to the See of Rome:

Dequa forma, saith he, Episcoporum quoque est orta distinctio, & magna dispositione provisum est ne omnes sibi omnia vindicarent, sed essent insingulis Provinciis singuli quorum inter fratres haberetur prima sententia,& rursus quidam in majoribus urbibus constituti sollicitudinem sumerentampliorem, per quos ad unam Petri Sedem universalis Ecclesiae curaconstueret, & & nihil usque a suo capite dissideret. Qui ergo scit sequidusdam esse praepositum, non moleste ferat aliquem sibi essepraepositum; sed obedientiam quam exigit etiam ipse dependat; et sicutnon vult gravis oneris sarcinam ferre, ita non audeat aliis importabilepondus imponere.

These words sufficiently show the monarchical form of government then set up in the Churches of the Western Empire under theBishop of Rome, by means of the imperial Decree of Gratian, and theappeals and decretal Epistles grounded thereupon.The same Pope Leo, having in a Council at Rome passed sentence uponHilary Bishop of Arles, for what he had done by a Provincial Council inGallia, took occasion from thence to procure the following Edict from theWestern Emperor Valentinian III. for the more absolute establishing theauthority of his See over all the Churches of the Western Empire.

Impp. Theodosium & Valentinianus AA. Aetio Viro illustri, Comitii & Magistro utriusque militiae & Patricio.Certum est & nobis & imperio nostro unicum esse praesidium in supernaeDivinitatis favore, ad quem promerendum praecipue Christiana fides &veneranda nobis religio suffragatur. Cum igitur Sedis ApostolicaePrimatum sancti Petri meritum, qui princeps est Episcopalis coronae &Romanae dignitas civitatis, sacrae etiam Synodi firmavit auctoritas: nequid praeter auctoritatem Sedis istius illicitum praesumptio attemperarenitatur: tunc enim demum Ecclesiarum pax ubique servabitur, si Rectoremsuum agnoscat Universitas. Haec cum hactenus inviolabiliter fuerintcustodita, Hilarius Arelatensis, sicut venerabilis viri Leonis RomaniPapae fideli relatione comperimus, contumaci ausu illicita quaedampraesumenda tentavit, & ideo Transalpinas Ecclias abominabilis tumultusinvasit, quod recens maxime testatur exemplum. Hilarius enim quiEpiscopus Arelatensis vocatur, Ecclesiae Romanae urbis inconsultoPontifice indebitas sibi ordinationes Episcoporum sola temeritateusurpans invasit. Nam alios incompetenter removit; indecenter alios,invitis & repugnantibus civibus, ordinavit. Qui quidem, quoniam non facile ab his qui non elegerant, recipiebantur, manum sibi contrahebatarmatam, & claustra murorum in hostilem morem vel obsidione cingebat,vel aggressione reserabat, & ad sedem quietis pacem praedicaturus perbella ducebat. His talibus contra Imperii majestatem, & contrareverentiam Apostolicae Sedis admissis, per ordinem religiosi viri Urbis Papae cognitione discussis, certa in eum, ex his quos male ordinaverat,lata sententia est. Erat quidem ipsa sententia per Gallias etiam sineImperiali Sanctione valitura: quid enim Pontificis auctoritate non liceret?Sed nostram quoque praeceptionem haec ratio provocavit. Nec ulteriusvel Hilario, quem adhuc Episcopum nuncupare sola mansueta Praesulispermittit humanitas, nec cuiquam alteri ecclesiasticis rebus arma miscere,aut praeceptis Romani Antistitis liceat obviare: ausibus enim talibus fides& referentia nostri violatur Imperii. Nec hoc solum, quod est maximicriminis, submovemus: verum ne levis saltem inter Ecclesias turbanascatur, vel in aliquo minui religionis disciplina videatur, hoc perennisanctione discernimus; nequid tam Episcopis Gallicanis quam aliarumProvinciarum contra consuetudinem veteram liceat, sine viri venerabilisPapae Urbis aeternae auctoritate, tentare. Sed illis omnibusque pro legesit, quicquid sanxit vel sanxerit Apostolicae Sedis auctoritas: ita utquisquis Episcoporum ad judicium Romani Antistitis evocatus venireneglexerit, per Moderatorem ejusdem Provinciae adesse cogatur, peromnia servatis quae Divi parentes nostri Romanae Ecclisiae detulerunt,Aeti pater carissime Augusti. Unde illustris & praeclara magnificentia tuapraesentis Edictalis Legis auctoritate faciet quae sunt superius statutaservari, decem librarum auri multa protinus exigenda ab unoquoqueJudice qui passus fuerit praecepta nostra violari. Divinitas te servet permultos annos, parens carissime. Dat. 8:Id. Jun. Romae, Valentiniano A.C.Consule,A.C. 445.

By this Edict the Emperor Valentinian enjoined an absolute obedience to the will of the Bishop of Rome throughout all theChurches of the Empire; and declares, that for the Bishops to attempt anything without the Pope�s authority is contrary to ancient custom, and thatthe Bishops summoned to appear before his judicature must be carriedthither by the Governor of the Province; and he ascribes these privileges ofthe See of Rome to the concessions of his dead Ancestors, that is, to theEdict of Gratian and Valentinian II. as above: by which reckoning thisdominion of the Church of Rome was now of 66 years standing: and if inall this time it had not been sufficiently established, this new Edict wasenough to settle it beyond all question throuthout the Western Empire. Hence all the Bishops of the Provinces of Arles in their Letter to Pope Leo,A.C. 450, petitioning for a restitution of the privileges of theirMetropolitan, say:

Per beatum petrum Apostolorum principem, sacrosancta Ecclesia Romana tenebat supra omnes totius mundi Ecclesiasprincipatum. And Ceratius, Salonius and Veranus, three Bishops of Gallia,say, in their Epistle to the same Pope: Magna praeterea & ineffabiliquadam nos peculiares tui gratulatione succrescimus, quod illa specialisdoctrinae vestrae pagina ita per omnium Ecclesiarum conventiculacelebratur, ut vere consona omnium sententia declaretur; merito illicprincipatum Sedis Apostolicae constitum, unde adhuc Apostolici spiritusoracula referentur. And Leo himself, in his Epistle to the metropolitan Bishops throughout Illyricum:

Quia per omnes Ecclesias cura nostra distenditur, exigente hoc a nobis Domino, qui Apostolicae dignitatisbeatissimo Apostolo Petro primatum, fidei sui remuneratione commisit,universalem Ecclesiam in fundamenti ipsius soliditate constituens.

While this Ecclesiastical Dominion was rising up, the northern barbarous nations invaded the Western Empire, and founded several kingdomstherein, of different religions from the Church of Rome. But thesekingdoms by degrees embraced the Roman faith, and at the same timesubmitted to the Pope�s authority. The Franks in Gaul submitted in the endof the fifth Century, the Goths in Spain in the end of the sixth; and theLombards in Italy were conquered by Charles the great A.C. 774. Betweenthe years 775 and 794, the same Charles extended the Pope�s authorityover all Germany and Hungary, as far as the river Theysse and the Balticsea; he then set him above all human judicature, and at the same timeassisted him in subduing the City and Duchy of Rome. By the conversionof the ten kingdoms to the Roman religion, the Pope only enlarged hisspiritual dominion, but did not yet rise up as a horn of the Beast. It was histemporal dominion which made him one of the horns: and this dominion heacquired in the latter half of the eighth century, by subduing three of the former horns as above. And now being arrived at a temporal dominion, anda power above all human judicature, he reigned with a look more stout than his fellows, and times and laws were henceforward given into hishands, for a time times and half a time, or three times and an half; that is, or 1260 solar years, reckoning a time for a Calendar year of 360 days, anda day for a solar year. After which the judgment is to sit, and they shalltake away his dominion not at once, but by degrees, to consume, and to destroy it unto the end. And the kingdom and dominion, and greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven shall by degrees, be given unto thepeople of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.